The human ear

Outer ear - Middle ear - Inner ear - Brain

Outer ear

  •     Auricle (Auricula auris)
  •     Outer auditory canal (Meatus acusticus externus)

Middle ear

  •     Eardrum     (tympanic membrane) – diameter 9-10mm
  •     Hammer     (Malleus)
  •     Anvil     (Incus)
  •     Stapes     (Stirrups) – the smallest bone in the human body
  •     Tympanic     cavity (Cavum tympani)

Inner ear

  •     Cochlea
    •         hair cells: mechanical stimuli are transformed into nerve activity
  •     Cranial nerve (Nervus auriculotemporalis)
  •     Semicircular ducts (Ductus semicirculares)

Transmission of stimuli to the brain

  •     Cranial nerve (Nervus auriculotemporalis)

The auditory nerve transports the sound to the brain and thus becomes peceptible.

  •     Brain stem / auditory cortex

Audible range of humans and animals:

Infrasound < 16 Hz

Audible sound 16 Hz to 20 kHz

Ultrasound 20 kHz to 1.6 GHz

 

Humans (approx. 25 years): 16 to ca. 18000 Hz

Humans (approx. 65 years): 16 to ca. 14000 Hz

Cat: 60 to 65000 Hz

Dog: 15 to 50000 Hz

Bat: 1000 to 150000 Hz

Dolphin: 100 to 200000 Hz

Blue whale: 10 to 30000 Hz